Usage Example Sentences Gerund Infinitive
Gerund is a noun derived from a verb and occurs due to the addition of “–ing.” Gerund One form is “read” which means reading and then turned into a “reading”. You can use thegerund as a subject (subject), complement (complement), or object (object) in a sentence.
Subject – Swimming helps you stay healthy.
Complement – One of my father‘s favorite sport is swimming.
Object – I love swimming.
Gerunds can be a negative sentence by adding “not“:
He likes not dreaming.
The best thing in your life is not smoking.
Infinitives used as a verb form. Form of infinitives one of which is “learn” to “to learn”. Youcan also use infinitives as subject, complement, and object of the sentence.
Subject – To learn is quite important.
Complement – The most important thing is to learn.
Object – She wants to learn.
Infinitives can be a negative sentence by adding “not“:
I decided not to study.
The best thing is not to give up.
1. Gerunds and infinitives can be used as a subject or a complement in a sentence. But inuse, usually gerunds infinitives sound more common while rarely used and sound moreforeign. You can see it through the sentence below, the following sentence there is a tendency that the gerund whereas infinitives sound more natural to have a morephilosophical emphasis. It’s a little confusing, but specifically to complement the subject andwill be easier to hear when we use the gerund.
Normal subjects – Learning is important.
Not commonly used – To learn is important.
Complementary Normal – The most important thing is learning.
Not commonly used – The most important thing is to learn.
2. As the object of the sentence, it would be difficult to choose between gerunds orinfinitives. In such situations, gerunds and infinitives are usually not interchangeable. In general, the main verb in the sentence is the determination of whether you use gerunds orinfinitives.
He enjoys learning – verb “enjoy” requires a gerund.
He wants to learn – verb “wants” requires an infinitive.
A. Definition of Adverb
Adverb is a word that gives a description of the place, time and manner of an activity or event that occurred.
Example : here, now, softly, loudly, tomorrow, again, twice, never, etc.
Adverb is also defined as a word that describes a verb, adjective, preposition and other word except noun and pronoun. And there are various forms of adverb which are categorized by function or use.
Types of Adverb
a. Adverb of Time
Is an adverb that states the time of a job, actions or events. Example afterwards , already, before, frequently, now, today, soon , immediately, lately , yesterday, etc.
• I’am stydying english Now.
(To help show Adverb of Time, we can ask questions with words “when”)
b. Adverb of Place
An adverb which shows the scene of an act, action or event. Example above, back, below, around , here, somewhere, everywhere, there, etc..
• She studies English here.
(To help show Adverb of Place, we can ask question with words “where”)
c. Adverb of Manner
Is an adverb that expresses how a job is done or an event that happened. Example carefully, fluently, hard, fast, slowly, suddenly, together, etc.
• They worked hard.
(To help show Adverb of Manner, we can ask question with words “how”)
d. Adverb of Degree
Is an adverb that expresses the extent to which (level or degree) of a situation or incident. Typically explain or modify adjective atau adverb. Example almost, enough, fairly, rather, nearly, very, too, only, quite, etc.
• She is very pretty girl.
• I quite understand
e. Adverb of Frequency
An adverb which states the amount or how much of a job, actions or events do.
1. Adverb of Quantity
Usually to determine adverb of quantity we can ask question with words “how often”. Example : always, usually, never, ever, sometimes, seldom, generally, etc.
• Andi always drinks milk every night.
2. Adverb of Number
Usually to determine the adverb of number we ask questions with words “how many times”. Example once, twice, thrice, half, twofold, etc.
• He eats twice every day.
f. Adverb of Affirmation
An affirmation stating words, suppression or affirmative answers. Example certainly, naturally, surely, of course, absolutely, etc.
• Of course she can speak English.
(Another term for adverb of affirmation is adverb of certainty)
g. Interrogative Adverb
Is an adverb that helped shape the questions. Each adverb this type associated with other adverb.
• How did he go?
(How is interrogative adverb of manner)
• Where did he go?
(Where is interrogative adverb of place)
h. Relative Adverb
Is an adverb that serves as a connector of two clauses in a sentence. The words were the same as the interrogative adverb, the difference is only in the layout position, namely relative adverb is usually placed in the middle of a sentence (between the two clauses), while interrogative adverb at the beginning of the sentence.
• I asked him how he went.
(How is relative adverb of manner)
• I asked him where he went.
(Where is relative adverb of place)
B. Definition of Adjective
Adjective is a word that is part of the part of speech that serves to explain the noun including Pronoun. Adjective usually precedes the noun or pronoun that given the nature or it can also stand on its own if it becomes the object of a sentence nomimal.
• My sister is not only beautiful but also tall.
• Tonight is very quiet and dark.
• I met a big gorilla in the zoo yesterday.
• I have some girl friends, but you are the best.
• The man who is standing on the bridge is a terrorist.
Type of Adjective
1. Original Adjective
Meaning the adjective in this sense is not made up of elements of any words, but indeed he was created to be an adjective.
Example : Don’t step on the floor, it still wet.
2. Past Participle
Past participle or what we are familiar with V3 as: confused, broken and also be an adjective.
Example : Please help me to fix my broken car.
Some experts grammar there is also considered that the article also includes the adjective. Which includes article is “a”, “an”, dan “the”.
4. Possessive Adjective
Possessive can be interpreted with “belong to”. And is meant here is the possessive pronoun consisting of “my, your, his, her, its, their”. Although actually possessive pronoun does not describe or explain a noun, but by experts grammar included in the category of adjective.
5. Demonstrative Adjective
What is meant by demonstrative adjective is a word like “these, this, that”.
Example : When the librarian tripped over that cord, she dropped a pile of books.
6. Interrogative Adjective
Because interrogative, then of course use question words like “what dan which”.
Example : Which plants should be watered twice a week?
C. Difference of Adjectives and Averbs
Adjective give information about the noun.
• She’s an excellent dancer.
• I’ve got a new apartment.
Adverb (adverb) change verb, adverb that describes how something is done.
• She learns quickly.
• You can speak English well.
a) Adjective can be placed before the noun.
• This is a beautiful bird (true)
• This is a bird beautiful (false)
The adjective provides information such as the size (small, large), shape (round, square), color (yellow, green), nationality (China, Poland), and opinions (good, bad).
b) Adjective do not change depending on the number (singular or plural).
• She has a cute puppy.
• She has three cute puppies.
Note that the adjective (cute) no change either in the singular (puppy) and plural (puppies)
c) Adjective also be placed after certain verbs like be, feel, look, and taste.
• I’m really happy today.
• She’s got a new job so she feels great.
• You look wonderful!
• This chicken tastes delicious.
a) Adverb often formed by adding -ly behind adjective.
• quick (adjective) – He’s quick at learning new things.
• quickly (adverb) – He learns quickly.
• bad (adjective) – He didn’t get a bad test score.
• badly (adverb) – He didn’t do badly in his test.
b) For the adverb is formed from the adjective that ends with the letter “y” replace “y” with “i” and add “-ly”.
• easy (adjective) – He thinks math is easy.
• easily (adverb) – He can do math easily.
• happy (adjective) – He’s a happy man.
• happily (adverb) – He works happily every day.
c) For the adverb is formed from the adjective that ends with the letter “-LE” replace “-LE” with “-ly”.
• simple (adjective) – The teacher makes difficult things simple.
• simply (adverb) – He teaches simply and clearly.
d) Some of the same with the adjective adverb.
• He runs fast (adverb) – He’s a fast runner. (adjective)
• He studies hard. (adverb) – It’s a hard life. (adjective)
e) Adverb can also change the adverb-adjective and adverb more.
• That’s a good book.
• That’s a very good book.
• She’s a talented girl.
• She’s an incredibly talented girl.
• You’re right!
• You’re absolutely right!